Over 130 years ago a German physician by the name of Alfred Buchwald, described for the first time a chronic skin rash (erythema migrans), which today is known as Lyme disease. In the early 1970s, an epidemic of mysterious and debilitating disease occurred in the town of Lyme. Symptoms included swollen knee joints, paralysis, skin rashes, headaches and severe chronic fatigue. In the mid-1970s, scientists began to describe the first signs and symptoms of this new disease, calling it Lyme Disease. They still did not know the cause, despite large-scale research. It was not until 1981 that Willy Burgdorfer, who had previously studied the rocky mountain fever, attempted to discover the culprit. First, he discovered the connection between the tick and the disease, and then the bacteria called the spirochete. The medical community honored the discovery of dr. Burgdorfer in 1982 and called the spirochete Burgdorferi Borella. Since the 1980s, the number of cases has dramatically increased, to the extent that the disease has become an important public health problem in the entire Northern Hemisphere. Today, Lyme disease is one of the fastest growing infections transmitted by various vectors around the world.