Human threadworm (Enterobius vermicularis) is a colon parasite that is widespread throughout the world, especially in moderate climates.It occurs more often with children than with adults.
In Europe, an annual infection with a threadworm was found in various groups of children reaching to a number of several dozen percent. In Poland, mass examinations showed an annual infection of the threadworm reaching up to 17% of adults and 38% of children aged 7-14; in children’s homes and isolated groups, the parasite was sometimes found in 90 and even 100% of the children being tested. The average annual percentage of people infected in Poland is around 18%. Oesxia (a disease caused by Enterobius vermicularis) may be asymptomatic. Symptoms depend on the intensity of invasion and individual sensitivity. Oatxia may persist for a long time, and its symptoms may increase as a result of continuous infection itself. Many patients are prone to anal pruritus. Children may have bed-wetting, and in addition, the infection causes nervous system disorders such as excessive excitability, insomnia and general fatigue. In the case of young girls and women, wandering threadworms cause pruritus and vulvovaginal inflammation.The main way to fight againstoatiasis is to know the routes of invasion.The infection takes place directly by transferring eggs on your fingers to the mouth from the itchy area of ​​the anus. Eggs can be transferred with the help of unwashed hands, food and everyday objects, e.g. children can transfer the eggs on toys, from where they get transferred directly to the mouth. Finally, eggs scattered on bed linen and underwear can use dust as a source of transport to get all over your place of residence. You can talk about oatosis as a disease of people living together. The threadworm infection can occur both by swallowing eggs that have got into the food with dust, as well as those that got into the upper respiratory tract by a simple way which is breathing.Therefore, to be successful in the fight againstoatiasis, it is essential to use sanitary and hygienic procedures for a long time. It is also a condition for the effectiveness of pharmacological treatment. In addition to personal hygiene, it is necessary to change underwear and bed linen frequently. Also, it is very important to destroy eggs in the environment by scrupulously maintaining cleanliness in the apartment (especially the couch, armchairs and rugs), in the toilet and bathroom. At a normal room temperature, the parasite maintains the ability to infect a person for up to 3 weeks.

The Human Whipworm (Trichuris trichiura) is a cosmopolitan nematode that occurs most often in Poland after the polymorpha. The incidence of infection varies from 2.3 to 25% each year, and in some villages up to 90%. It occurs in the caecum and in the large intestine.There are no signs of disease in carriers of a smaller numbers of whipworms. In the case of an intense invasion, we encounter symptoms from the gastrointestinal tract, nervous system and circulation system. We can distinguish many types of pain and symptoms: pains in the right lower abdominal square, mucous diarrhea – sometimes with blood, insomnia, neurosis, dizziness, headaches and anemia.Treatment of the whipworm infections is difficult, the more important is the prevention of infection. It consists in observing personal hygiene (especially washing hands before eating) and thorough washing of consumed fruits and vegetables.

Ascaris lumbricoides is a geohelmint. It is a parasite present in the small intestine in about one-fourth of the world’s population, and in some regions in 90% of the population. In terms of the frequency of occurrence in Poland, the human roundworm occupies the third place after the polymorph and threadworm. Its occurrence is estimated from 1 to 18%. Among the group of parasitic intestinal nematodes, the human roundworm presents itself to be the biggest. The longest roundworms can reach up to 40 centimeters, and make up to 200,000 eggs a day. They are spread all over the world, and the most where poverty and bad sanitary conditions prevail. Africa is a zone of particularly intense ascariasisendemic. There is a case of a twelve-year-old boy brought to the hospital with a diagnosis of intestinal obstruction. The boy was in very bad condition, so he underwent surgery. The cause of the bowel obstruction turned out to be a bundle of over five hundred adult worms. After a few days, the operation had to be repeated and another hundred roundworms have been removed. The boy eventually did not survive due to the overwhelming amount of the human roundworms that were found in his organism.Intensive invasions and complications of ascariasis cause approximately 60,000 deaths annually in the world. Parasites cause anemia to hundreds of thousands of infected people. Human reaction to the presence of roundworms depends on individual sensitivity. Sometimes one roundworm can cause unpleasant and even serious symptoms in the form of persistent urticaria, nervous and intestinal disorders. In the course of ascariasis, the disease symptoms may be caused by wandering larvae and adult nematodes residing in the intestine. Larvae wandering in large numbers cause damage to the intestinal and liver walls. The most serious changes occur in the lungs. Stray larvae, which get into the atypical organs from the lungs, cause inflammatory reactions in them. In ascariasis many symptoms may occur, and amongst many we recognize: urticaria, pruritus of the skin, swelling of face and hands, conjunctivitis, lachrymation, dry cough and other allergic symptoms.From the  nervous system side, symptoms such as insomnia, restless sleep, excessive nervous excitability and sometimes epileptic-like symptoms may occur in ascites. It was also found that children affected by ascites can suffer from significantly lesser physical and mental development. Prevention plays a key role in the fight against ascites. Personal hygiene protects against infection with eggs. The most important habits are washing hands especially before eating, avoiding contamination of rooms, everyday objects, toys and other things which can be smudged with soil brought from outside, e.g. shoes.Children are particularly vulnerable to catching an infection, because of non-compliance with hygiene rules.

Toxocaracanis and Toxocaracati, as well as Ascaris and Trichuris, belong to geohelmints that humans can be infected with. These parasites in the mature form are commonly found in the gutsof dogs and cats. When it comes to humans they occur only in the larval forms.At the beginning of the human invasion we can observe enlargement of the liver and symptoms of pneumonia. Larvae circulate in various organs, not completing their development cycle. From the lungs they can get into the peripheral circulation and then into other organs, e.g. the eyeball, the brain and muscles. The larvae cause granulomas in humans, and several larvae can cause numerous tumors in tissues in which larvae remain alive for a year or even longer. Infection with Toxocaracanis and Toxocaracati eggs occurs just like in human worm infestation by swallowing invasive eggs on food, dirty hands or objects put in the mouth. Fighting Toxocara infection is based mainly on maintaining hygiene, disinfection and cleanliness of premises and everyday objects. Human, dog or cat worm eggs are insensitive to disinfectants, while they are sensitive to high temperatures.

Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis belong to the species found in Poland and Europe. Mature forms of these tapeworms occur in the small intestine of canine animals (dog, wolf, fox), and in larval forms in the internal organs of humans, as well as animals such as cattle, pigs, goats and rodents. Echinococcosis is common in farm animals, and more recently, it is also noted to be  increasing in case of humans.In the world there are endemic outbreaks of E. multilocularis diseases: in Switzerland, southern Germany, Siberia, Japan and Alaska. In Poland, the most cases of echinococcosis in humans were recorded in the region of Puck, Kętrzyn, Giżycko and Białowieża. The invasive form for humans are tapeworm eggs that are specifically excreted by the final host, mainly the dog. Dogs as final hosts usually tolerate even intense infection with tapeworm. Humans are infected with echinococcus through direct contact with an infected dog or indirectly through everyday objects contaminated with tapeworm eggs or through contaminated food.In some cases, the source of human infection may be breeding foxes in farms or wild carnivorous animals. Pathogenic symptoms and the sequelae of echinococcosis in the case of humans depend primarily on the location, size and number of parasites. Echinococcosis often leads to the death of the host, especially in the cerebral location of the parasite. In echinococcosis, tumor symptoms or complications occur only a few or a dozen years after infection, especially in the case of adults. Echinococcosis located in the brain or the eyeball is the earliest to be localized. An effective way to protect humans against Echinococcus invasions, is the periodic deworming of dogs, not feeding them with slaughter waste and maintaining hygiene in rooms where a humans and dog spend most of their time together.

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Canine tapeworm (Dipylidium caninum), also often referred to as the cucumber tapeworm due to the shape of the members. It is a cosmopolitan parasite of dogs. In Poland, most dogs are infected with this tapeworm. The intermediate carrier are fleas.Humansare the accidental final host of this tapeworm. Most infections of Dipylidium caninum that occur at adults and at animals are asymptomatic.The infection occurs by accidentally swallowing all or a fragment of a crushed flea containing a parasite larva or by accidentally getting a flea into the food. Numerous cases of infection of young children have been described. They are single and asymptomatic. Effective protection of humans against an infection with this tapeworm is to fight with fleas and their larvae in living facilities. Unfortunately, most domestic dogs are the hosts of single or numerous fleas, usually carriers of tapeworms.

Toxoplasma gondii is a cosmopolitan protozoan, parasitizing intracellularly in various tissues of the human body and many animals. Some immunological reactions indicate contact with this parasite in about 25-90% of people in the world. This protozoan induces toxoplasmosis acquired or congenital in humans. Toxoplasmosis acquired in acute form proceeds with high temperature, headaches, symptoms of pneumonia, myocarditis, enlarged lymph nodes, spleen and liver as well as meningitis and brain inflammation. Congenital toxoplasmosis manifests itself in the first four months of life and is very severe in the case of newborns.In the majority of cases, congenital toxoplasmosis occurs with hydrocephalus, inflammation of the retina and the retinal choroid and the focal hemorrhagic necrosis of the brain. For children with acute illness, mental underdevelopment may occur. Infection of mothers during pregnancy often ends in a miscarriage. An invasive figure for humans is, among others, oocysts and trophozoites. Oocysts are excreted by cats along with faeces. They retain considerable resistance to environmental factors and retain their invasiveness for a long time. We can get infected with Trofozoitamimost often by eating raw or undercooked meat. It is recommended for pregnant women to reduce contact with animals and to eliminate raw meat from the menu.

Entamoeba histolytica is a cosmopolitan human parasite occurring mainly in the tropical and subtropical zone. In Poland, it is estimated that it affects about 2% of the population and is usually among people coming from these regions or having contact with people who have come from there. Therefore, cases of Entamoeba histolyticausually occur in port cities and among the inhabitants of the coast.Entamoeba histolyticaconstituents cause amoebosis in humans. The occurrence of disease symptoms is associated with the penetration of trophozoites into the submucosa and muscle layer of the large intestine wall and the formation of disseminated necrotic ulcers. The clinical symptoms of the disease depend on the place of parasitization of rigs. There is diarrhea with a lot of mucus and blood in acute intestinal epidermis. The parasites can get into other organs through the blood vessels, causing abscesses e.g. of the liver, spleen, brain. Asymptomatic infection with this parasite, common in countries with moderate climate, causes carriage. The parasites invasive form are cysts that die within 5 minutes. at 50 ° C, and at higher temperatures within fractions of a second.

Entamoeba gingivalis is a cosmopolitan creature that lives in the mouth of a human. It is a protozoan with a simple development cycle. We only distinguish one stage – trophozoite, which is characterized by a variable shape. Entamoebagingivalis does not form cysts. The prevalence of this protozoan, the course of infection and pathogenicity have so far been the subject of only a few studies. The infection most often occurs during kisses or by joint use of dishes. In the oral cavity, the protozoan usually occurs on the gingival margins, in the interdental spaces, tooth cavities, paranasal sinuses, alveolar flutter, tonsils of the tonsils and in the bronchial mucus. It was also detected in the content of lung abscesses. If a protozoan is found in the bronchial secretions, it is necessary to differentiate Entamoebagingivalis with Entamoebahistolytica, which is based on the ability of Entamoebagingivalis to phagocytose leukocytes. So far, the pathogenicity of Entamoebagingivalis has been proven. The fact that Entamoebagingivalis is more common in people with oral mucositis, palatine tonsitis and paranasal sinuses, as well as in people with poor oral hygiene and in patients with decreased immunity of the organism [16]. Information on the prevalence of Entamoeba gingivalis among healthy people varies greatly. Research carried out in the 1970s on students showed the presence of this parasite in over 20% of subjects [17]. The publications also noted that the increase in prevalence of Entamoebagingivalis [18] occurs in connection with oral conditions, especially in periodontal diseases. Based on our own research [19], the incidence of Entamoeba gingivaliswas demonstrated to be 72%with students.

Argas reflexus is a cosmopolitan species noted in Poland. As a parasite, he lives in the nests of Eurasian crag martin (swallows) nests. It also feeds on the blood of chickens and ducks. It can attack, mainly at night. It may attack people in apartments located next to abandoned dovecotes and attics inhabited by pigeons. The ticks sting painfully, causing pruritus and swelling of the skin, and the pain and irritation of punctured places can sometimes be renewed for several years. In sensitive people, they cause very severe allergy symptoms, sometimes loss of consciousness. The ticks carry the germs of the poultry disease, as well as tick-borne encephalitis, Paratyphoid feverviruses and Q-fever. The treatment of ticks is based on the destruction of eggs and larvae, e.g. with chemicals and high temperatures.

Clothing louse and head louse (Pediculushumanus, Pediculus. capitis) is characterized by high host specificity and therefore parasites only on humans. Female pediculushumanus lays eggs (nits) in the layers of clothing adhering to the body. Thanks to the sticky secretion, the eggs stick to the clothing, usually along the seams. Hatching nymphs hatch from eggs, which after several sloughs transform into the form of imago.All individual development takes several weeks. pediculus capitis has a similar developmental cycle topediculushumanus, except that it chooses hairy parts of the head for the main area of ​​its occurrence. Lice are distributed through direct contact with an infected person and through the joint use of clothing and combs. During the onset of the skin, itchy eruptions appear which causes the person to feelitchy.This in turn leads from scratching to wounds of the skin that may undergo secondary bacterial infection. Untreated head lice can lead to scarified skin lesions and clumping of the hair as a result of oozing of the serous fluid from the wounds.Pediculosis may be the cause of allergic reactions. Clothing louse can carry Rickettsia prowazekii, causing typhus.

Mites constitute a group of several thousand organisms, of which only some species are direct parasites of humans and animals.While others are the cause of allergic symptoms for people who are allergic to their secretions or digestive products. Most species are indifferent to humans, and only some are the cause of many ailments. Dust mites are widespread throughout the world and can be found in all places surrounding humans.

Mange Mites  (Demodex folliculorum, Demodex brevis) are characterized by small size, wormy body shape and short stump-like legs. Individual species morphologically are poorly differentiated, but they show high specificity towards hosts [21]. Demodex spp. Is an intradermal parasite that lives in hair follicles (follicles) and sebaceous glands of humans and animals. These parasites are transmitted through direct contact with the skin of the infected person, through bedding, towels, cosmetics and probably through dust. The female lays about 20 eggs. The development cycle of minge mites lasts about 3 weeks and takes place on one host.Pathological changes in the course of eyelid demodekosis are a consequence of many factors, including: blockage of the hair follicles and drainage sebaceous glands, reactive hyperkeratinization, epithelial hyperplasia, mechanical bacterial transmission, inflammatory response of the host to the presence of a parasite as a foreign body and stimulation of the hosts humoral responses and cellular immune reactions under the influence of mites and their excretions.Infection with mange mites and eyelid inflammation for infected people is supported by the work with the use of a microscope [23] and it grows with age. In larger groups of people, it is said that 11% of the children in the group of 3-10-year-olds are infected and even up to 97% of the people in the group of over 80-year-olds.

Rat mites (Ornithonyssus bacoti) are the size of about 0.5 mm, they reproduce very quickly, mainly in an asexual matter. It is a periodic parasite, and feeds during the day.The proper host is a traveling rat. The parasite attacks people in rooms located near the rat’s whereabouts. It stings painfully causing skin irritation and strong allergic reactions. It can carry the rat’s gastrointestinal infections, Q fever and even bubonic plague. The fight against this paraise involves washing floors, furniture with hot water or chemically.

Harvest mite(Trombicula autumnalis) is an about 1.7 mm long parasite. It is a stage of parasite which attacks mammals only as a larva. The larvae whichattack humanslike to stop in places of clothing tying, e.g. near the belt, preferably sitting next to the hair follicles and sweat tubes. Larvae attack seasonally, in summer and autumn when people spend more time in a field or a garden. The fight against this parasite involves ironing or evaporation of your clothing or chemical cleaning.

Poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) lives in neglected chicken houses and dovecotes. The parasite has a size of about 0.6-0.7 mm. The host of this parasite is mainly domestic fowl. In the case of hunger, it attacks domestic animalsand humans. It feeds at night. The red mite carries viral and bacterial poultry diseases. Prolonged movement of the parasite on the human body causes pruritus and skin changes. Fighting against this parasite is similar to fighting other parasitic arthropods.


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