Forms of Lyme disease

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NEUROBORRELIOSIS
We speak about neuroborreliosis when pathogens attack nerve cells. Neuroborreliosis can cause neurological symptoms which resemble other neurodegenerative diseases or psychosomatic symptoms.Neuroborreliosis may occur at the beginning of the infection, during the treatment or at a later stage, taking on a chronic and progressive character.
Neuroboreliosis may occur with serious symptoms such as: rage, irritability, personality changes, emotional instability, convulsions, tremors, hypothermia, migraines, headaches, cognitive disorders, mental fog, memory loss, dyslexia, systemic dystonia and attention deficit, and many more. You can read all about these symptoms here (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17350199).

There are specific and scientifically confirmed reasons for these problems. The Borellia spirochete (spiral-shaped bacteria), most associated with Lyme disease, are closely related to the spirochete of syphilis, which was known in the medical environment due to chronic neurological problems. Studies have shown that within 20 minutes of infection Lyme spirochete can reach the brain (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2148032/).
Very predictable symptoms start to appear when this kind of infection occurs. Syphilis and borreliosis spirochete are known to produce urease enzymes that cause local accumulation of ammonia (hyperammonaemia) in the brain. Ammonia induced by borreliosis causes inflammation and edema of astrocytes (brain cells) leading to numerous subsequent neurological symptoms. The presence of spirochetes and ammonia in the brain also causes a leakage of the blood-brain barrier, allowing more molecules to enter the protected, inner sanctuary of the brain. Alkalinity of ammonia causes brain injury. In some cases, reduction of the bacterial population may be enough to ensure complete and permanent cure. However, with highly advanced neurological symptoms, the mere killing of bacteria will not lead to the restoration of the quality of life. The ultimate goal of the treatment must be to restore optimal structural integrity and brain function. This involves neutralizing ammonia, blocking urease and repairing the damaged blood-brain barrier.

LYME CARDIS
We know from animal studies that when the infection enters the body it is spreading fast.
It tries to hide in the tissues and often occupies the heart. It can infect all parts of the heart – cardiac muscle, pericardium, valves, and even the aorta. The immune system detects an intruder and responds promptly, triggering inflammation. Inflammation caused by infection may cause impairment of electrical conductivity between the atria and the ventricles. This arrhythmia is called the AV block. The AV block is a very serious and probably the most common type of Lyme arthritis. When the conduction of the electrical signal is weakened, the rhythm and mechanical heartbeat are not synchronized. There are three stages of the atrioventricular block. The third stage being the most severe. A permanent pacemaker is required. Usually, however, you can reverse the changes using antibiotics. Symptoms of the AV block include dizziness, shortness of breath, fainting, palpitations and chest pain, similar to a heart attack. Almost 90% of patients with Lyme disease develop conduction abnormalities, and as many as 60% have symptoms of cardiac inflammation, but only symptoms. Coronary artery disease caused by boreliosis, occurs only in less than 4% to 10% of all Lyme patients. The basis for the detection of inflammation is an ECG that detects or excludes the atrio-ventricular conduction block. Patients with a PQ break lasting over 300 ms require constant monitoring. Cardiac conduction disorders are usually convertible, so the implanting of a permanent pacemaker is rarely necessary. Nowadays, there is no conclusive evidence of a link between Lyme disease and the subsequent development of dilated cardiomyopathy. The treatment of choice is antibiotics, preferably ceftriaxone. However, the cardiac MRI can also be used to confirm the diagnosis. Prognosis is beneficial, but it is still unclear what co-infection is predominant in this type of disease.Often with this kind of disease, the results of serological tests are negative. Some experts point to an infection with Bartonella and Lyme disease.

LYME ARTHRITIS
Lyme arthritis (borreliosis affecting joints) is one of the forms of Lyme disease. Symptoms of Lyme arthritis, such as joint pain or stiffness, may occur after a few weeks, months, or even several years after the infection, so patients often do not associate them with any insect bite.This form is not limited to the osteoarticular system. It can also take a skin, neurological or cardiological form. The onset of the disease, is often foretold by temporary joint pain, usually of low intensity. When Lyme disease reaches the status of a disseminated infection, patients complain of joint-bone and muscle pain, tendon and tendonitis pain. They are often sharp and wandering, and sometimes short-lived and recurrent. Arthralgia caused by Lyme disease occurs mainly in the knees and other major joints. Other frequently occurring couplings are hips, shoulders, elbows, wrists and ankles. This pain occurs because bacteria that cause Lyme disease affect the joints and cause inflammation of the tissues. Many patients with this disorder describe their experience as joint pain which moves from one joint to the other and the pain that arises and passes during the day. After being able to get rid of the infection, persistent arthritis is most likely already associated with autoimmunity. Arthritis is considered to be a late dissemination infection occurring several months after the tick bite. Many patients with this form of the disease, are misdiagnosed, particularly with juvenile arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, reactive arthritis, infectious arthritis and osteoarthritis.Joint or bone problems are not the only afflictions of this form of the disease, although they are usually dominant. Because it is a multi-system disease, symptoms can come from different parts of the body’s organs.

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