Dinosaurs were already suffering from Babesia, today it infects almost every life form on earth, not bypassing even birds or reptiles.Babesia is a distant and less virulent cousin of malaria, a protozoan, which means it is a unicellular organism with a nucleus surrounded by its DNA. Like malaria, it primarily infects red blood cells. There are over one hundred different babesia species, but only a dozen causes disease in humans. The most common Babesia diseases are: Babesiamicroti, Babesiadivergins and Babesiaducani. It easily changes the physical form and function to adapt to the environmental disruptions caused by antibiotics. The reservoir of this disease are mice, they do not suffer from babes like ticks.After Babesia enters the body, the infection is mild or does not cause any symptoms in most people. Over time, it leads to chronic immunological failure. It usually occurs in low concentrations in the body, and is characterized by a slow increase. These features indicate that Babesia is very difficult to diagnose with tests known to us.
Thanks to Borrelia, bartonella and mycoplasmosis, its expansion is small, which gives reason to be treated first. Its unexpected growth can lead to very severe symptoms that often end in death. Babesia can cause different symptoms depending on its level of involvement in Lyme disease. During standard treatment of the disease, symptoms may get worse.
A vigilant doctor will indicate the expansion of babesia,which has attacked as a result of weakening role of other coinfections.This is a signal indicating the presence of babesia in a disease that has not been detected before. Typical symptoms at that time include: chills and sweats, increased pain in the joints and muscles, slight fever (the only symptom at this stage indicating the domination of babesia), nausea, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and low blood pressure.Sometimes the patient may have a yellow tone of skin or eyes.They sometimes manifest petechiae (small, red spots on the skin) and bruises.
Difficulty to breathe may occur, which is suggested by pulmonary edema (the lungs are starting to fill with water) and dark urine may also occur. Infection with babesia is cyclical which, means that the symptoms may appearevery few weeks and sometimes months which will be typical of this pathogen (recurrent, powerful sweating).
There are several clinical changes that a doctor suspecting babesiaas a coinfection may use as a sign: enlarged spleen and liver, decrease in blood platelets, hemolysis (destruction of red blood cells), mild neutropenia / leukopenia (decrease of white blood cells), organ dysfunction (heart attack, stroke, respiratory disorders, kidney failure).Quite often there a drop in blood pressure and increased heart rate may occur.
Babesia organisms capture a significant number of red blood cells (clustering rbc) as a source of food, as well as to obtain protection against the immune system. This can lead to spontaneous rupture of small blood vessels, causing petechiae and bruising (small red spots on the skin, congestion). Becausered blood cells are destroyed, a severe babesia infection can mimic cancer. Babesia also increases blood coagulability. In a worse scenario, this may result in blockage of small blood vessels and swelling of blood vessels. In order to obtain protection against the immune system and antibiotics, babesia creates small cysts. Cysts are located inside the liver and spleen, which constitutes of a great place to reproduce. Reproduction follows sexual intercourse, which allows maximum genetic diversity.
During the entire life cycle, Babesia goes through four separate stages (sporocytes, gametocytes, ookinets, merozoites). All four stages can be present in the body at once which also guarantees them maximum possibilities of survival. This cycle is repeated every few months, giving the effect of recurrent symptoms. Babesia (and other hidden organisms) try to move the immune systems response from Th1 towards Th2. Th1 increases the formation of the amino acid, l-arginine, necessary for the production of nitric oxide (NO).
Nitric oxide is very toxic to microorganisms and is necessary to kill babesia. In the initial phase of the infection, babesia stimulates IL-10. This has the effect of lowering the level of all Th1 cytokines, reducing l-arginine (babesia creates a state of depletion of l-arginine) and thus restrainsthe production of Nitric Oxide.
If we have babesia infection, supplementation with L-arginine helps fight the infection and is a natural killer of this protozoan (and other microorganisms). When the immune system gradually wins, IL-10 increases.The Spleen and immune response cleanse the infection, but if all microbes are not fully eliminated, the whole cycle can repeat once again and in a few months we are again theunfortunate owners of this plague. Diagnosis of babesia uses the indirect immunofusion test (IFA) for IgG and IgM antibodies produced by the body itself to fight against Babesia.The diagnosis is based on a quadruple increase in antibody titres for several weeks.The first sample should be collected as soon as possible and the second sample should be collected 2-4 weeks later. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detects microbial DNA in a blood sample.IGeneX uses a reinforced version of PCR and FISH together to increase the accuracy of the tests for B. microti and B. ducani. Unfortunately, the study is unavailable in Poland and the other studies are considered unreliable.